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In addition to the multi-beam sectorisation, 2-branch MIMO transmission on the downlink is provided.
MIMO transmission is accomplished by making use of the polarised antenna array Identical beam sets are formed on the two orthogonal polarisations and transmission is then coded across corresponding pairs of beams using any suitable space-time coding scheme. Such an approach provides the benefit of both multi-beam and STC from a single, compact antenna aperture.
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On the uplink the same multibeam configuration as for the downlink is preferably used with polarisation diversity. The beam directivity provides significant interference reduction. Subscribers located at beam cusps will tend to suffer degraded link performance compared with subscribers located at the peak of the beam. However, degradation is minimised by coherently combining adjacent beam outputs on both polarisations to achieve enhanced gain and increased diversity benefit. The present invention is particularly concerned with the downlink basestation to mobile or other user terminal where capacity loading is likely to be greatest, for example in provision of services to end users such as web pages and internet applications.
As mentioned above, any suitable type of space-time coding method may be used. For example space-time block coding STBC as illustrated in the top layer of Figure 19; layered space-time BLAST which is more applicable to fixed or nomadic applications and is illustrated in the middle layer of Figure 19; and space-time trellis coding STTC which is suitable for both mobile and fixed applications and is illustrated in the bottom layer of Figure Another suitable method is that of feedback space-time coding with separated subchannels as illustrated in Figure This type of feedback or eigen-mode STC simplifies the receive processing by decoupling parallel streams of the transmitter.
It requires feedback of MIMO channel weights from receive to transmit and is most suitable for low-Doppler fixed or nomadic applications. Spatial multiplexing space-time coding can also be used as illustrated in Figure In this method, independent coded data streams are sent to different transmit antennas. The receiver is required to carry out spatial processing to separate the different transmissions. When the eigen values are imbalanced, performance is poorer than for eigen-mode STC but the feedback requirement is vastly reduced. In the embodiments described above in which MIMO and multi-beam systems are combined, a space-time coding MIMO communications method is used for each antenna beam link.
For example, consider the case with three antenna beams, each at two polarisations.
One of those antenna beams, and the corresponding beam at the other polarisation serve one or more subscribers or users that are located within a geographical area served by those beams. MIMO, space-time coded communications between the base station and those users occurs via the pair of antenna beams. By using MIMO, the communications rate to those users can be increased. The same occurs for users in the geographic regions served by the other two pairs of antenna beams.
Thus capacity is increased as compared with using three pairs of antenna beams with no MIMO communications. It is also possible however, to simultaneously provide both MIMO space-time coded communications, and non-MIMO, non-space-time coded communications from one or more of the antenna beams.
This is advantageous in that legacy user equipment which is non-MIMO compliant is operable whilst at the same time MIMO compliant user equipment can be used. The user or subscriber equipment is arranged to be able to distinguish between MIMO and non-MiMO communications packets using any suitable method, such by having different carrier frequencies for the two types of signal. The basestation is arranged to multiplex the MIMO and non-MIMO packets such that both these types of communication are transmitted from the basestation simultaneously.