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Mechanical characterization of parts produced by ceramic on‚Äźdemand extrusion process

Paper Titles. Article Preview. Abstract: Numerical simulation by CFD to analyze the mechanism of mud out of mud extrusion process of the velocity field in the simulation, the influence of the quality of the clay mud section the nature of materials were studied. Add to Cart. Advanced Materials Research Volumes Main Theme:. Application of Chemical Engineering.

Edited by:. Online since:. May Cited by. Related Articles. Landers, M. Leu, L. Tang, B. Deuser, R. Hilmas, S. Zhang, J.


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Li, A. Thornton, B. Deuser, J.

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Watts, M. Leu, G. Hilmas, R. Li, R. Please report errors in award information by writing to: awardsearch nsf.

TMT4145 - Ceramic Engineering

This device is driven by a motor and a pendular gearmotor. These are used to separate the powders of required granulometry from those needing further finishing. They have electromagnetic heads mounted in line on support decks which transmit high frequency oscillating energy; this energy can be regulated and modified for each single head and is applied directly to the screening net at a number of points all over the net.

A calibrated choice of inclination of the screening surface and of the net with the most appropriate mesh makes it possible to obtain an exact classification of the powders for a high rate of material processing. There can be one, two or three grading surfaces in order to obtain different particle sizes from the same machine at the same time.

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The screens are also equipped with a self cleaning system with brushes and electrical resistances to cope with humidity levels in the raw materials. If unwanted particle size is produced owing to breakage of the net, an optical and acoustic alarm is given. The powders leaving the finishing mill are unloaded onto the previous elevator and taken back to the screening control. The nebulization of the water is obtained by a rotating disc activated by a closed and ventilated motor.

A series of steel rotating blades remix the moistened powders in order to obtain perfect homogenisation. These are made of prefabricated panels, pre-painted with anti-rust, coated internally with rubber and bolted to support structures of variable capacity as required. Normally, storage of powders obtained through dry milling and by moistening do not need the so-called seasoning but can be sent immediately to production. Therefore, the silos are used simply to store the raw material for a maximum of one or two days' production. The system equipped with airtight throttle valves and a high pressure water addition system perfectly homogenizes the body and adds the necessary amount of water which easily permeates the composition without formation of lumps or big grains.

The material is inserted into the milling chamber by a batching screw or a weighing belt, the milling process is carried out by rotating rollers which squeeze it against a fixed circular sector track. The particles are carried to the upper part of the mill by a flow of air generated by a centrifugal ventilator or collected by a process filter.

Operations can take place in two ways:. The technical-operational characteristic of the innovative "open" circuit is that the material which has just been ground can be handled by powerful and immediate suction. The process ends with stages 10,11 and 12 as shown above.


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The data shown is indicative and may vary without notice. PDF Version. Maximum required particle size and percentages of other particle. Relative humidity measured in relation to the dry weight of a sample. The clay is extracted in the low rainfall months and stored in heaps, even in the open air. In the summer months, the stored clay is spread over a large area and left to dry in the sun. While the clay is drying a machine from the quarry turns it over so that the lower layers are exposed to the sun and thereby surrender some of their humidity.

This drying process takes about 1 to 2 days. After this treatment, the clay humidity has been reduced sufficiently to allow the dry working process to begin. In an industrial plant, the treated clay is stored under canvas or a canopy in sufficient quantities to enable production to continue during the months when climatic conditions are at their worst. It is a lean component which stabilises the mixture without reducing its malleability. It helps drying and firing as it improves the total porosity of the humid and dried mixture.

It performs a "binding" function, resulting in better amalgamation of the clay particles, and therefore of all the mixture. This is valid for all products from the "poorest", the common brick structural ceramic to the most prestigious extruded porcelain stoneware. Existing deposits can be exploited without having to carry out expensive and complicated selections at the extraction stage.

Mixes can be made up using preferably the raw materials available or those more easily accessible thus avoiding the very high costs of finding and supplying alternative ones. Reuse of the company's own dried and fired production waste or that of other producers. Total elimination of impurities, all kinds of carbon particles, mica and others, which cause technical and aesthetic defects to the end products.

Possibility to obtain different grain sizes from different raw materials, to be used separately or in combination in the production process. Continuous operation can be guaranteed even when routine or extra-duty maintenance is being carried out. It is possible to react immediately to changes in the supply of raw materials due to changes at the quarry. It is possible to modify the technical and aesthetic characteristics of the end product, or to plan its replacement quickly in accordance with the requirements of the market.

It is possible to foresee and to plan extensions, restructuring and technical innovations of the downstream units ensuring that the mixture is suited for the different shaping, drying and firing treatments.

Course - Ceramic Engineering - TMT - NTNU

The total "deflocculation" of the body with a "hydrosphere" effect on the humidified particles. Measurement and continuous automatic control of the humidity content in the powder Moisture Meter. Perfect amalgamation of the powder with partial conversion into pellets leading to a high level of fluidity and facilitating treatment in the downstream stages.

Precise weighed addition of water used for humidifying and mixing, which is guaranteed to remain constant as a percentage of the final mixture. Uniform pressure of the materials during extrusion and elimination of tensions within the mixture which facilitate the drying process and reduce the vacuum pressure required by the pugmill. DRYING - Homogenous distribution of the apparent porosity which helps to eliminate water at the drying stage thus reducing the production cycles and the percentage of waste materials.

In addition, the perfect amalgamation of the raw materials which make up the mixture helps to obtain better fusibility and a more efficient vitrification, thereby improving the technical characteristics of the end product. Technical products, clinker, extruded white body porcelain stoneware with maximum absorption of 0.