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New York: Basic Books. New York: Hawthorn. Ellis, Havelock Studies in the Psychology of Sex.

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Volume 4: Sex in Relation to Society. New York: Random House. Fisher, Seymour; and Cleveland, Sidney E. Journal of Psychology Foote, Nelson N.

Heterotypical behaviour in man and animals / edited by M. Haug, P.F. Brain, and C. Aron

Social Problems Frank, Lawrence K. London: Hogarth. Paris: Becour. Goode, William J. American Sociological Review Hammer, Emmanuel F. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology Hayn, Hugo; and Gutendorf, Alfred N. Munich: Muller. New York: Crown. Kirkendall, Lester A. New York: Julian. Klausner, Samuel Z. Krafft-Ebing, Richard F. New York: Putnam. Leiman, Alan H. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol New York: Harcourt. New York: Eugenics Publishing. Boston: Beacon.

New York: Morrow. London: Gollancz; New York: Morrow. Money, John; Hampson, J. Legal Almanac Series, No. Dobbs Ferry, N. Murdoch, George P. New York: Grune. Murphy, Robert F. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology New York: Philosophical Library. Podell, Lawrence; and Perkins, John C. Potter, Howard W. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Reich, Wilhelm The Sexual Revolution.

New York: Orgone Institute Press. Reiss, Albert J. Reiss, Ira L. Journal of Marriage and the Family Thomas, W. New York: Dover. Unwin, Joseph D.

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Westermarck, Edward A. London: Macmillan. One premise of psychoanalytic doctrine is that the general developmental process of childhood includes psychosexual development.

Thus, at the moment of conception, growth status and potential is determined by both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the genetic code of information, supplied half by the mother, half by the father, and by the intrauterine environment in which the fertilized egg exists. The intrauterine environment may prove hostile mechanically, metabolically, or because of the invasion of foreign organisms, viruses for example. The embryo itself may be its own enemy, as when a particular developmental phase or system fails, with subsequent deleterious effects on another phase or system.

For example, if the testes differentiate imperfectly in a genetic male, then the fetal testicular secretions fail, with the result that the anlagen of the external genital morphology develop as either completely or partially female, depending on the degree of testicular failure. Contrarily, in the case of a genetic female, if the fetal adrenal cortex functions erroneously, so as to produce an excess of androgen in the place of expected cortisone, then the anlagen of the external genitalia will masculinize in their development, even to the point that the genital tubercle becomes a fully formed penis instead of a clitoris.

Both of the foregoing examples of an error in embryonic sexual development illustrate the principle of the critical period, that is to say, that period in the development of some system or function when the organism passes from a neutral or undifferentiated stage to a differentiated one. It is during this critical period that development is vulnerable to interference and deflection, which, if they occur, will leave a permanent residual in structure or function. The further development of the organism will then in some degree be determined by, or influenced by, the outcome of the critical period.

The concept of the critical period applies not only to morphologic and prenatal development, but to behavioral, psychological, and postnatal development as well. In behavioral science, the European animal ethologists were the first to observe that patterns of behavior, including sexual behavior, can be experimentally changed during a critical, developmental learning period, and thenceforth this deviance becomes relatively fixed. In other words, particular atypical experiences may interfere with or deform the genetic, hormonal, or neural norms of behavioral development otherwise expected.

The justly famous experiments of Harlow see Money a , chapter 7 on the macaque monkey are a case in point. The experimental monkeys showed that opportunity to play with age-mates in early childhood was a developmental prerequisite to the achievement of normal copulatory ability in adolescence. Depriving the infants of childhood play, combined with depriving them of interaction with their mothers by rearing them with dummy mothers made of wire covered with a piece of towel, had particularly adverse effects. Such doubly deprived animals were unable to adapt to the motions of mating and to effect sexual intercourse even when paired with mates selected for experience and gentleness.

Those few females in whom pregnancy was finally achieved were incompetent to mother their own young. They neglected and injured them, sometimes cruelly. Other aspects of their behavior, in general, also appeared to be grossly disordered. Another illustrative experiment is that of Birch Female rats were raised in isolation with a rubber collar or ruff around their necks, which deprived them of the experience of licking themselves or others. They were finally released from their collars to deliver their first litter. Instead of licking the young as they were born, they ate most of them.

Heterotypical behaviour in man and animals

The surviving 5 per cent were retardedly and improperly retrieved and badly suckled; some were eaten after being carried to the nest. Three survivors of a large litter died of starvation.

Their mother had shepherded them under her chin every time they approached her belly to search for a nipple. Experiments in population density with rats have demonstrated yet another way in which behavioral experience, namely crowding, may induce aberrant sexual and social behavior Calhoun , affecting even the unborn fetuses and their future behavior, presumably via the maternal endocrine system Keeley The proper understanding of psychosexual development and of erroneous development in human beings requires focusing attention on experience, behavior, and social interaction during the formative years of childhood.

In man, perhaps even more so than in lower species, peculiarities and special features of experience during critical periods may change the expected genetic, hormonal, or neural norms of development.

Heterotypical Behaviour in Man and Animals by Marc Haug (2 star ratings)

Human hermaphroditism, for which there are several different etiologies, is conventionally defined in terms of a discrepancy between the gonads ovaries, testes, or, rarely, ovotestes and the morphology of the external genitalia. Sometimes the discrepancy may be total, as indicated at the beginning of this article, namely, when the gonads are testicular and the external organs are perfectly female the syndrome of testicular feminization or when the external organs are perfectly male except for an empty scrotum, the gonads being ovaries and in proper ovarian position a rare variant of the hyperadrenocortical syndrome of female hermaphroditism.

Most commonly in hermaphroditism, however, the discrepancy between gonads and external organs is incomplete, by reason of the fact that the external organs are themselves imperfectly differentiated as either male or female. In this incompleted state of differentiation, the external sex organs of either sex look remarkably similar: the penis with a urinary gutter instead of a tube and with its orifice near the scrotum can easily be confused with an enlarged clitoris, and the incompletely fused scrotum may pass for labia that have improperly begun to fuse.

Because confusion is possible and because medical decisions may sometimes differ, it may so happen that two individuals of identical genetic, gonadal, and hormonal diagnosis are assigned to different sexes. The expected outcome of such sex assignment is that psychosexual differentiation will proceed to take place congruously with assignment and rearing.

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Ideally, the external organs will have been repaired surgically as early as possible, so as to conform to the assigned sex. Even with delayed genital repair, it has proved possible for psychosexual differentiation to take place in keeping with assigned sex when genetic, gonadal, and hormonal sex are at variance. In congruous-looking sex organs militate against psychosexual differentiation appropriate to sex assignment, especially when the incongruity is reinforced by some other source of ambiguity such as parental lack of conviction as to the way they should be rearing their child or open doubt expressed by age-mates.

Ideally, for psychosexual differentiation to be brought to maturity at puberty, assigned sex should not be at variance with hormonal sex and the secondary sexual changes of the body that are hormonally controlled. This ideal can be met in modern endocrinology. Yet, there are occasional untreated cases; among them are cases of hormonal virilization in girls with the hyperadrenocortical syndrome, which is remarkable in view of the intensity of virilization and its early onset before the usual age of puberty. These cases show that the persistence of a feminine psychosexual differentiation is possible despite the hormonal contradiction and its severe handicap to proper adolescent social maturation. In psychosexual differentiation, the crucial variables, which may in hermaphroditism be independent of one another and may be overridden by the experiential effects of assignment and rearing, are five: 1 chromosomal sex, as determined by actual chromosomal count, 2 gonadal sex, 3 hormonal sex, 4 internal accessory morphologic sex, and 5 external morphologic sex. Psychosexual differentiation itself transcends not only all five of these variables but also the assigned sex in the syndrome of transvestism with transsexualism, which has, therefore, been treated, and not without reasonable success, by surgical, hormonal, and social sex reassignment Benjamin ; Pauly To have found rare clinical cases in which the five physical variables can be overridden is not, of course, to have proved that the physical variables do not under other circumstances contribute to, or help determine, psychosexual differentiation.

What has been proved is not that psychosexual differentiation is always and exclusively a matter of behavioral and experiential life history but that experiences determined by rearing are far more potent than might otherwise have been expected. Harlow observed that the young male monkeys made more threats toward other monkeys, both male and female, than did the young females. The young females retreated more often than the males, specifically by adopting the female sexual posture. The young males initiated more play contacts, with playmates of either sex, than did the females; and the males had a monopoly on rough-and-tumble play.