Limerick and Cork dominated the direct Irish routes to Quebec, sending 50 and 33 ships respectively. Over 20 ships came from each of Dublin 27 , Sligo 26 , and Belfast Two state-sponsored schemes in favour of emigration towards British North America were envisaged the first at the end of and the second in But they were heavily criticised and therefore both abandoned despite the backing of Prime Minister Lord John Russell. In the case of Canada, Mark G. Since Canada was the cheapest destination and the quickest way to reach North America, it was attractive to potential Irish migrants.
Emigration from Ireland to Canada was made all the easier as Irish people were British citizens and as such, could not be refused entry into Canada. He journeyed to Canada in the spring of and bemoaned the fate of the Irish migrants in the report of his voyage to the Colonial Secretary Earl Grey:. Before the emigrant is a week at sea, he is an altered man. Hundreds of poor people, men, women, and children, of all ages, from the drivelling idiot of ninety to he babe just born; huddled together without light, without air, wallowing in filth and breathing a fetid atmosphere, sick in body, dispirited in heart … ; the fevered patients lying between the sound … ; by their agonised ravings disturbing those around them and predisposing them, though the effects of the imagination, to imbibe the contagion; living without food or medicine except as administered by the hand of casual charity; dying without the voice of spiritual consolation, and buried in the deep without the rites of the church Death tolls aboard ships were as high as one passenger in fourteen on vessels departing from Liverpool and Sligo and one in nine on ships leaving from Cork.
On 31 May , 36 ships accommodating 12, emigrants were waiting to disembark on the St Lawrence River; on 5 June, the number of emigrants had increased to 21, and was still as high as 14, in early September. Overcrowding led to the rapid spread of disease, which could not be controlled due to poor care facilities: the quarantine hospital on the island could house only patients and the temporary sheds and tents erected did not have enough beds to solve the problem of overcrowding; on 20 July, there were over 2, fever patients in the island hospitals. In these circumstances, the mortality rate soared, from 50 deaths a day on 23 May to a day by 5 June.
The Chief Emigration agent at Quebec estimated that 3, emigrants died on the coffin ships at sea and over 2, on Grosse-Ile. In total over 5, people were buried on the island but estimates suggest that as many as 20, people died on the island or aboard ships quarantined around it. According to J. In addition 4, people were admitted to the hospitals and fever sheds in Kingston and 1, died; others died in Toronto.
The problem was clearly anticipated in the press, as is shown by the Quebec Mercury dated 20 March We have the best authority for believing that our wharfs will not be overcrowded with emigrants sent out at the government expense, but the lessons taught us in former years of the misery resulting from an over influx of the self-expatriated inhabitants of the old country ought to induce some preservative action of the part of the provincial government and the civic authorities of Quebec.
The wretchedness and personal evils of are not forgotten; and a repetition of them may be anticipated as consequent upon the arrival of the many immigrants who will, undoubtedly, seek these shores to escape the horrors of famine and the uncertainty of future prosperity in their native land.viptarif.ru/wp-content/whatsapp/4286.php
We are not of those who look forward to the certainty of the introduction among us of an important virulent epidemic, but we should be wanting in our duty did we not urge upon the proper authorities the necessity of early and active preparation to meet a threatened evil. The Quarantine Station at Grosse Ile will prove of much efficacy in diminishing the preconceive danger, but it is beyond dispute that of itself, in a season fruitful of disease, it is insufficient … At Quebec proper steps have been taken for the establishment of a Board of Health, and a similar precaution ought to be observed in all our frontier towns and cities to which the emigrants are likely to resort in considerable numbers On the contrary some welcomed it.
To contrive … to relieve … the indigent and suffering Emigrants [and to appoint] a Committee of 21 persons … , exclusive of the Clergymen and all the Medical men … to whom should be left the details of all measures to be conducted for the relief of the sufferers, and to whom should he deputed the task of corresponding with the Government, on all matters concerned with the Emigration Between 25 May and 1 June , as the number of emigrants arriving at Grosse Ile was sharply increasing, the tone of the Quebec Mercury — an Anglophone, conservative, pro-British and anti-Lower Canada newspaper — remained relatively confident in the capacity of emigration authorities to cope with the influx of emigrants and the spread of disease.
The newspaper kept dismissing any kind of alarm among the Quebec City population:.
A Famine Forces an Unprecedented Migration.
To deny that an unexpected extent of disease prevails at the Quarantine Station would be not only impolitic but untrue. The passenger ships arrived up to this time have been visited with a heavy mortality, but not altogether arising from a malady which should create in the people of Quebec that alarm which would appear to have seized them.
We have had access to the latest and most authentic information from Grosse Ile, and can assure our readers that the alarming stories current in town pervert the actual state of things. The state of affairs at the Quarantine Station imperatively demand[s] some prompt action on the part of the Government, if we would spare human life and at the same time preserve the Province … from the spread of disease in the coming warm season, which may extend its ravages to a degree not to be anticipated.
We have been afforded every facility in obtaining the correct matters of things at Grosse Ile … Le Canadien , a Francophone working class newspaper competing with the Quebec Mercury , urged for a change in the existing navigation regulations on 28 May These critical views persisted throughout the summer.
Concern about health and safety was all the greater as a number of local male and female volunteers involved in the care of the sick doctors, nurses, nuns and priests fell ill themselves and sometimes died This sum was reimbursed by the British Imperial Government, but it was also stipulated that the Canadian government could no longer expect such grants. The inflow of sick emigrants experienced in led local and national newspapers to express a wide range of feelings and reactions — worry, anxiety, suspicion, but also sheer pity and sympathy at the fate of the emigrants.
These expressions of empathy suggest that there existed a form of deep moral and emotional connection between Ireland and Canada, which could be further examined. There was even a reported famine in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia in Potato crop losses were reported with growing alarm both by the Niagara Mail and The Newfoundlander in September and October Mr James Hiscott, a practical farmer resident in this neighbourhood, informed us last week that his potato crop is principally destroyed by the blight. The attack was sudden and unexpected, and occurred within a week or ten days past.
It has been argued however that the Famine marked the beginning of a turning point in the political relations between the Irish and the Canadians, notably the French Canadians.
Irish and German immigration
On the contrary the post-Famine period witnessed, until at least the end of the 19 th century, increasing political and ethno-religious tensions between the Irish and the French Canadians. The Canadian Irish acquired a more distinct Catholic identity within Canada.
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At the same time, Canada remained a political model only for the moderate Irish Home Rulers but ceased to inspire republican nationalists in Ireland. In between, the period of the Great Famine and its immediate aftermath are seen as a moment of both climax and transition. King notably asserts:. Ils sont bien pauvres. Money was soon collected to encourage emigration to Australia: over 2, Irish orphans were sent there thanks to a Government scheme financed essentially by the colonial authorities, and a few other thousands came thanks to other forms of assistance As in the case of Canada, emigration was seen by a number of Australians as a way to increase the available labour force and boost the Australian economy.
But anti-Irish prejudice acted as a brake on further Government-assisted emigration schemes British colonies sent donations to Ireland and welcomed Irish immigrants, so that they formed new bonds with the Irish and their native country. The networks of trade and communication available by the mid th century contributed to the flow of news and information from Ireland to the colonies and back: as a result, the colonial press also turned the Famine into a cross-imperial and international issue.
Crawford, E. Williams eds. McGowan, Mark G. Margaret Crawford ed.
The end of Irish emigration to America as we have known it?
This meeting was only to take place a few days later, as another article published on 18 February shows. Crowley, W. Murphy eds. In the merciful dispensation of Omnipotence, the progress of pestilence may be stayed, and that current may be dammed up at its source, which, if permitted to flow, would deluge the town in its destructive inundation; but the people will offer their gratitude where alone it is due, and will remember that it is in spite, and not in consequence of, the conduct of our Government that their deliverance has been effected.
Contents - Previous document - Next document. La presse canadienne et la grande famine en Irlande. Irish immigration in the s must be placed in this context.
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Fear of cholera and diseased immigrants was a reality. As well, the Irish Canadians had moved into fields of work such as canal construction, which were generally regarded dimly by most English and French Canadians, and this increased the anti-Irish sentiment. The independent farmer was the antithesis of the low-wage-earning, work-camp-dwelling proletarian.
Worse still, the land boom in Upper Canada that had sustained the economy alongside the wheat boom was in a trough in the late s. Immigration had been much sought after when there was a lot of land available and when it fetched a good price; when the Famine Irish arrived they were too poor to buy land, the market was depressed anyway, and no one was enthusiastic about more competition.
Things, of course, were much worse for the Irish themselves. Thousands died. Even in Upper Canada voices could be heard criticizing the British government for shovelling out its poor into British North America. Immigration from Ireland transformed Toronto from an essentially anglophone and Protestant city to one of pluralities: by there were comparable numbers of Catholics and Anglicans, followed by smaller numbers of Presbyterians, Methodists, and still smaller denominations.
Their presence gave purpose to the Orange Order , whose lodges stood as expressions of Protestant authority and xenophobic reaction to the immigrant masses.
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In Montreal they dominated St. Figure Skip to content Increase Font Size. Chapter Societies of British North America to Key Points The British Isles contributed the largest number of immigrants to British North America between and , the Irish constituting a major share. Conditions for immigrants were typically poor and worsened by the presence of epidemic diseases.
The Irish, Scots, Welsh, and English immigrants of these years contributed to the diversification of cultural institutions as well as sectarian hostilities. Gilbert A. Stelter and Alan F. Artibise Ottawa: Carleton University Press, , Previous: